A lithium UPS is an uninterruptible power supply that uses lithium-ion or LifePO4 chemistry batteries instead of traditional lead-acid batteries. Lithium batteries are safe and increase the backup time along with the life of UPS.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uninterruptible_power_supply, The biggest challenge in working with UPS is replacing SMF or Sealed VRLA batteries installed internally or externally in the UPS system. Lithium-ion batteries offer several advantages over the VRLA (Valve regulated lead Acid) batteries, including:
Longer lifespan: Lithium-ion batteries have a lifespan of 7 to 10 years, compared to 2-3 years for VRLA batteries. Sealed lead acid batteries have a shorter life than normal lead acid batteries, called VRLA technology. The Lithium battery can last more than 3 to 4 if charged properly by the UPS charger, and the discharge rate is also set according to the C rating of Tubular battery specifications.
Faster recharge time: Lithium-ion batteries can be recharged much faster than VRLA batteries so that a normal Lithium battery can be charged in 2 to 3 hours, depending upon the charger capacity of the UPS, and the SMF Lead Acid battery takes 8 to 10 hours to charge completely.
Higher energy density: Lithium-ion batteries can store more energy per unit weight than VRLA batteries, making them more efficient and compact. This means the lithium battery has a C1 capacity, and the VRLA battery has a C20 capacity. This means the backup time increases in the lithium battery compared to the VRLA battery of similar capacity. When higher loads are used, the VRLA life and capacity start reducing as the lithium-ion battery is designed to draw current for higher loads, and the capacity remains the same whether the load increases or decreases. As the VRLA battery is not designed for Higher loads and the UPS is used with a smaller battery bank sizing, the life of the VRLA battery is affected heavily, and the backup is reduced. In the case of Lithium-ion batteries, the size requirement is also reduced in terms of capacity compared to VRLA batteries.
Temperature range: Lithium batteries have thermal protection in the BMS, which will disconnect the Lithium battery in case of higher temperature, whereas the Lead Acid batteries don’t have such a feature, and they perform badly in low temperatures. The Lead Acid battery backup time reduces if temperatures fall below 10 degrees.
Battery Management System: This is a game changer in the comparison of VRLA vs. lithium-ion batteries, as the BMS plays a major role in equalizing all the cells in Lithium-ion batteries, which is missing in VRLA batteries. Another important part is the BMS’s control of load and short-circuiting protection. This BMS can also control the low and high battery cut, which controls the battery itself independent of the UPS charger. Another important feature is sleep mode, which functions when the battery reaches the Low battery cut. It keeps the battery in sleep mode, which is important in areas where power cuts happen for longer periods. The battery will never go into deep discharge, which happens regularly with the VRLA battery bank, in which case the installer has to take that battery for recharging, creating an imbalance in the battery bank.
As a result of these advantages, lithium UPS systems are becoming increasingly popular for various applications, including data centres, server rooms, and networking equipment.https://suvastika.com/why-lithium-battery-is-the-future-of-inverter-ups-industry/
Here are some additional benefits of lithium UPS systems:
Lighter and more compact: Lithium-ion batteries are significantly lighter and more compact than lead-acid batteries; the size matters a lot as the bigger UPS need a lot of space to install the battery banks, which takes a lot of real estate space. Real estate is becoming costlier, and in the case of lithium batteries, a lot of space is saved, which is a direct benefit for any user who uses them.
Safer and more environmentally friendly: Lithium-ion batteries are sealed batteries and can be kept anywhere in the home or office, but the VRLA batteries emit lead fumes and create Oxygen gas around the battery bank, which can become a cause of the accidental fire. The explosion of VRLA batteries creates lead fumes, which are not good for health even if they are sealed batteries.https://www.jycbattery.com/why-do-valve-regulated-lead-acid-batteries-catch-fire/
No maintenance requirements: Lithium-ion batteries require no maintenance compared to VRLA batteries, as they do not need to be watered if using the non-sealed lead-acid batteries in case using the SMF, which is sealed maintenance-free VRLA batteries. Also, equalization is required between the batteries or within the battery; there are six cells and equalizing them is impossible. There is a BMS in the Lithium battery, which takes care of the equalization of cell temperature runout and other important parameters regarding the Lithium batteries, which are impossible in the SMF batteries.
Lithium UPS systems offer several advantages over traditional VRLA UPS systems, including longer lifespan, faster recharge time, higher energy density, wider operating temperature range, lighter weight, smaller size, greater safety, and lower maintenance requirements.